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Friday, 13 April 2012

Network Paper Presentation


PPt on
NETWORKING

CONTENTS:
 1.  What is network?
 2.  Different types of networks.
 3. Client server network.
·       Lan.
·       Wan.
·       Man.
·       Workstation.
4.  Peer-to-peer network.
·       File transfer
5. Instruments.
6. Network interface card.
7. Cables.
8. Rj-45.
9. Hub.
 10.Software.
 11.Hardware setup.
  12. Configuration in win 95/98 or me.
 13.Usage.
 14. Problems.


NETWORKING
                    Now a day’s people become computer savvy & net savvy. There is a lot of impact of computers on the life of everyone. Here we are discussing about the network. These are the common questions that any one arises.

WHAT IS A NETWORK?

 A communications and data exchange system created by physically connecting two or more computers with Network interphase cards and cables and running a network operating system.
Networking is the technology to share the resources of others system
Which are connected in the network. The technology become common everywhere where there are number of computers. We can get
Number of advantages through this networking technology.

In the past Networking is so hard and expensive, because there are no such resources to develop the technology and network needs a server and a separate operating system and maintenance is also one of the problems. Now the technology is improving on & on the networking technology become so easy.
Now there are two types of networks mainly. They are,

1.    Client server networking.
2.    Peer-to-peer networking.


Client server network: ----
 
A method of allocating resources in a local area network so computing power is distributed among the computers in the network, but some shared resources are centralized in a file server.

Architecture: ----

 A design model for applications running on a network, in which the bulk of the back-end processing, such as performing a physical search of a data base, takes place on a server. The front-end processing, which involves communicating with the user, is handled by smaller programs distributed to the client workstations.


This client server networking is possible, when there are more than five systems. This network is mainly used in large industries, where there are number of systems. This network consists of a server and number 
of clients. These clients are attached to the server to share the data and resources. Client server networking supports these types of networks. They are,

·        LAN
·        WAN
·        MAN
·        WORKSTATIONS

LAN
   
            Local area network. Personal and other computers within a limited area that are linked by high- performance cables so that the users can exchange information, share peripherals and draw on programs and data stored in a dedicated computer called a file server.

Ranging tremendously in size and complexity, LANs nay link only a few personal computers to an expensive, shared peripheral such as printer. More complex systems use central computer (file server) and allows users to communicate with each other via electronic mail to share multi user programs and to access shared databases.
It is used to connect the computers locally.


WAN: ---
  A network that uses high speed, long distance
 Communications networks or satellites to connect computer over distances greater than those traversed by local area networks.

MAN: -----
                       A network that uses high-speed communications networks to connect computers between two LANs with in the same area.

WORK STATIONS: ------

                      In a local area network a desktop computer that runs application programs and serves as an access point to the network.



PEER-TO-PEER NETWORK

                   A local area network without a central file server and in which all computers in the network have access to the public files located on other workstations.

File transfer: --

                   A file sharing technique for LANs in which each user have access to public files located on the workstations of any other network user. Each user determines which files, if any, he or she wants to make public for network access.

Now we are pointing to this peer-to-peer technology. It is so easy & less expensive. If there are five systems we can prefer this technology.
We can share the resources and data through this technology & it does not need separate operating system. It simply works with the operating system which we have in our pc’s i.e. win 95/98 or me.
If there are more than five systems then we use the client server network. It requires server and server operating system.

So this peer-to-peer network does not need a system engineer to maintain the network. We can do our self. By this we can make the resources of one system to the others. We can share the devices such as printer, drives & Internet connections also.

INSTRUMENTS: -------

                   It requires hardware & cables to connect the systems.


NETWORK INTERFACE CARD: ---------

                   An adapter that lets u connect a network network cable to a microprocessor. This card includes encoding and decoding circuitry and receptacle for a network cable connection.

                   Because data is transmitted more rapidly within the computer’s internal bus, a network interface card allows the network to operate at higher speeds than it would if delayed by serial port. Network such as Ethernet and Arcnet that use interface cards can transmits information much as apple talk, which uses serial ports.

CABLES: -----

                   The systems are attached through these cables. These are nothing but wires. In the past thin coaxial cables are used, due to this cables there is no need of a hub. There are lot of problems with this type the main problem is loose contacts with in the network & the speed of data transmission is so less. So due to these reasons & the cost of UTP cables & hubs becomes less the usage of BNS coaxial cables are in less usage. Now presently the usages of UTP cables are more.
 These utp cables are same as telephone cables but these consists of 8 wires where as telephone cables consists of 4 wires. For connecting to the network it requires rj-45 connector.

RJ-45: ----
                   For the data transmission in twisted pair networking .it consists of 8 wires.

HUB: -----

                   To connect the computer systems on the network to share the data & resources. It is like a junction box. There are different types of hubs available today 4,8,12,24 ports connections hubs are available. We have to choose hub depend upon our network. The data transfer speed of hub is 10mbps to 100mpbs. Small networks use 10mbps  & large networks use 100mbps.

Prices: -----

                   8 ports of 10 mbps is Rs. 2300/-.
                      8 ports of 100 mbps is Rs. 7000/-.

HARDWARE SETUP: ------

                   To connect the systems on the network h/w setup is as follows.

1.    Open the cpu‘s cover.
2.   Select one of the pci slots.
3.   Remove the slot cover.
4.   Place the nic card in the slot.
5.   Close the cpu cover.

 At the back of the nic card there is rj-45 socket so connect the one end of the utp cable to the slot. Then connect the other end of the cable to the hub. So connect the other system’s cables to the hub.
Place the hub power plug in the power slot  & switch on the power. Now the h/w setup is completed.

CONFIGARING IN WIN 95/98/ or me: --------

                   Switch on the system then the computer’s os automatically recognize the nic card. Then the system asks to install the card drivers. We have to install the drivers with a cd given with the card. Restart the computer. If the drivers are installed correctly then the led at the backside of the computer & the system’s led on the hub will on automatically. Continue the process with other computers. if the led is not glowing then refit & reinstall the drivers.

·        Network protocol: ------
The method used to regulate a network station ‘s access to a computer network to prevent the data collisions. It follows some set of rules.
Different networks use different type of protocols. But after the invention of Internet standard protocols are proposed i.e. tcp/ip. We can connect our network to Internet. Win 98 follows the tcp/ip protocols default. Small networks use Net Beui protocols also.
1.   Press the start button in win 98 then go for settings and double click on control panel.
2.   Go for network icon in control panel.
3.   Then press the add button in network icon. We will get the select network component type box.
4.   Select the protocol option in the box and press the add button.Then we will get a list with manufactures names and protocols list.
5.   Select Microsoft & tcp/ip protocol from the list.
6.   Now the box will show you the message client for Microsoft network.
7.   Select the tcp/ip & press the properties button.
8.   Now we have to give the ip address of each system.
9.   Select the ip address table from the tcp/ip properties.
10.It contains the options “obtain the ip address automatically “ & “specifies the ip address”. Select the second option it will show the ip address box & subnet mask address.
11. Enter the ip address & subnet mask address. By          default it will the number from 192.168.0.1 to 192.168.255.255. If there are five systems in our network we will give the address from 192.168.0.1 to 192.168.0.5 & subnet mask address will take the default   address 255.255.255.0. Press the button “ok.”
12.We will be back into the network window.
13.Set the file & print sharing table box & select the options to share the devices & peripherals.
14.Again the network window will come. Select the identification from the network table. Give the names to each system  & press the “ok” button. But the name of the work group will be same.
15. Place the win 98 cd in the system & press the “ok “ button the system will automatically restarted.
16.After restarted the system will ask for entering the password, give the password & click “ok”.
17.System will show u the network neighborhood icon on your system.
18.Click the “network neighborhood” icon .go for c: & right click then go for properties & select the sharing tab.
19.Give the share name & access type click the apply button & ok button.
20. We can give the folders, devices to access.

USAGE: ---------
         
                   To access the resources of the other computer just go for the network neighborhood & double click on it.  It will show the systems on the network. Click on the icon, which you want to access.


IF PROBLEMS EXISTS: -------
         
1.   Check the system that you want to access is in on or off.
2.    Check whether led at the back of the system & at the hub is in on/off.
3.   Check the tcp/ip settings if the led are on and no access with other systems.
4.   Check the ip addresses.
5.   Check the system 1 & go for dos prompt in system 1and write the command ping system 1 ip address.

Ex: - ping 192.168.0.1. Press enter.

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